Senthil Kumar Raju1,*, Vinoth Kumar Sekar1, Sudhakar Pachiappan1, Rajkapoor Balasubramanian2
1Swamy Vivekanandha College of Pharmacy, Tiruchengode, Tamilnadu, India.
2School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia.
*Address for Corresponding Author
Senthil Kumar Raju,
Professor & Head, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry,
Swamy Vivekanandha College of Pharmacy, Tiruchengode-637205,
Namakkal (Dt), Tamilnadu, India
Objective: In the present study, we evaluated the chemopreventive potential of methanolic leaf extract of Indigofera cassioides against diethylnitrosamine-induced phenobarbital promoted hepatocellular carcinoma in rats. Materials and Methods: Leaves of Indigofera cassioides (Fabaceae) was collected, shade dried and extracted with 80% v/v methanol by cold maceration process. The dried crude extract was used for investigation. Carcinogenesis was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (200 mg/kg). Two weeks after DEN administration, carcinogenic effect was promoted by 0.05% Phenobarbital, which was supplemented to the animals through drinking water up to 16 successive weeks. After the completion of study period, body weight, tumour incidence, serum liver marker enzymes, antioxidant enzymes level, lipid peroxidation, nucleic acid levels and tissue protein content was analyzed. Results: A significant raise in liver weight, relative liver weight, tumour nodes, liver marker enzymes such as transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, prothrombin time, total cholesterol, total bilirubin level, lipid peroxidation and nucleic acids content were observed in tumour bearing animals. Alpha fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, vasculoendothelial growth factor and tumour necrosis factor-α level were also significantly increased. Animals treated with the extract at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight significantly reduced the altered parameters to near normal. The elevated serum tumour marker levels were also significantly reduced by extract treatment. Chemoprevention of the extract was further confirmed by histopathological observation. Conclusion: From the data, the chemopreventive potential of methanolic leaf extract of Indigofera cassioides has been well established against diethylnitrosamine-induced phenobarbital promoted rat liver carcinogenesis.
Keywords: Indigofera cassioides, Diethylnitrosamine, hepatocellular carcinoma, tumour markers, chemoprevention