Kundu Smita S., Digvijaysinh G. Rana∗
Department of Pharmacology, Babaria Institute of Pharmacy, Vadodara, Gujarat, India
*Address for Corresponding Author
Digvijaysinh G. Rana
Department of Pharmacology, Babaria Institute of Pharmacy, Vadodara, Gujarat - 391240, India
Depression is a chronic syndrome with a pathogenesis linked to various genetic, biological, and environmental factors. Several links between gut microbiota and depression have been established in animal models. In humans, however, few correlations have yet been demonstrated. There is a growing emphasis on the relationship between the complexity and diversity of the microorganisms that inhabit gastrointestinal microbiota and health/disease, including brain health and disorders of the central nervous system. It has been demonstrated that changes in the gut environment can lead to a broad spectrum of physiological and behavioral effects including hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis activation and altered activity of neurotransmitter systems and immune function. Further, it has been demonstrated that microbiota could be an important in normal healthy brain function. Moreover, the relation between stress and microbiota and how alterations in microbiota influence stress related behaviors has been discussed. It has been demonstrated that bacteria including psychobiotics, probiotics and prebiotics in the gastrointestinal tract could activate neural pathways and central nervous system signaling systems. It is possible that probiotic and prebiotic could affect on emotional, cognitive, systemic and neural variables may be relevant to health and disease. In this review, it has been tried to discuss the role of gut microbiota in brain and depression. It can be concluded from the literature review that utilization of gut microbiota data may provide novel approaches for prevention and treatment of mental illness including depression.
Keywords: Depression, gut microbiota, psychobiotics, probiotics, prebiotics