Jane David1*, Jacob A. Kolawole2, Taiwo E. Alemika2, Francis M. Agwom2, Ukpe Ajima2
1Department of Medical Biotechnology, National Biotechnology Development Agency, Abuja, Nigeria
2Department of Pharmaceutical & Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
*Address for Corresponding Author
Department of Medical Biotechnology, National Biotechnology Development Agency, Abuja, Nigeria
Background: Detarium microcarpum is an important leguminous plant that is used for both nutritional and medicinal purposes across different regions of Africa. Objectives: The present study is aimed at evaluating the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of different leaf extracts of the plant so as to provide a scientific basis for its use in traditional medicine. Material and methods: The leaves of the plant were extracted successively using n-hexane, ethylacetate, methanol and water. The extracts were all screened to determine their phytochemical constituents. Furthermore, the hot plate and acetic acid induced writhing test were used to evaluate the analgesic activity of the extracts. For determination of the acute anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts, fresh egg white induced-paw oedema model in wistar albino rats was used while the formaldehyde induced-paw oedema method was used to evaluate the chronic anti-inflammatory activity. Results: Phytochemical investigation revealed that the leaf extracts contain saponins, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides steroids and terpenes with the ethylacetate extract found to be richest in phytochemicals. The extracts of D. microcarpum showed dose dependent analgesic activity in the study with the methanol and ethylacetate extracts of the plant having the highest activity in inhibiting acute and chronic inflammation respectively as compared to the reference analgesic diclofenac. Conclusion: It can therefore be concluded that there is a scientific rationale to explain the use of the plant in ethnomedicine for the treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions and the leaves of the plant can be further explored in the search for new drugs for the treatment of these conditions.
Keywords: Detarium microcarpum, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hot plate assay, paw oedema