Review Articles

2018  |  Vol: 4(6)  |  Issue: 6 (November-December)  |  https://doi.org/10.31024/ajpp.2018.4.6.3
Nipah Virus (NiV): Diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment

Abhishek Dabra*, Preeti Arya, Kumar Guarve

Guru Gobind Singh College of Pharmacy, Yamunanagar, Haryana, India

*Address for Corresponding Author

Abhishek Dabra

Guru Gobind Singh College of Pharmacy, Yamunanagar, Haryana, India

Abstract

Nipah virus infection is a developing disease in Southeast Asia. It belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae of Henipavirus Genus. The name Nipah originated from a village named “Sungai Nipah” in Malaysia where pig farmer diagnosed with encephalitis. A recent outbreak revealed that this virus was also associated with a neurological disease in horses and human in the Philippines. The present study is aimed to discuss the various methods for Diagnosis, prevention and possible treatment of the Nipah virus. It was considered that transmission of virus was through respiratory droplets, an open contact with throat and nasal secretion of the pig or due to the exposure with the tissue of sick animal. Moreover the virus has been disseminated in Malaysia from the fruit bats (natural host) to the amplification host and finally to humans. Date palm sap is very commonly used for the preparation of products like molasses which is used as a sweetener in sweets and cakes and sometime administered in raw form. The establishment period of Nipah virus generally varies from 4 days to 14 days but it can be increased up to 45 days to 2 months. Infection in humans begins from without symptoms and ends with fatal encephalitis. In starting days, affected people shows influenza like symptoms with high fever, headache, weakness and sore throat. This infection can be screened by the identification of antigen, virus isolation and serology. Exposure should be avoided with the fruits bats and with their secretions. On the other side, some other pharmacologically effective treatments are still under process in preclinical trials.

Keywords: Encephalitis, Hyperthermia, Nipah virus, Respiratory droplets, Serology

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