Nandhakumar Palraj1, Vairathevar Sivasamy Vasantha1*, Natarajan Chidambaranathan2*, Muthunanthevar Vijayan3
1Department of Natural Products Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, Tamilnadu, India
2K.M. College of Pharmacy, Uthangudi, Madurai, Tamilnadu, India
3Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Functional Materials Division, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu, India
*Address for Corresponding authors
Prof. Dr. V. S. Vasantha
Department of Natural Products Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai- 625 021, Tamilnadu, India.
Background: Pergularia daemia (Apocynaceae) plays an important role in traditional ayurvedic and siddha for the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, and jaundice. Interestingly, the latex of Pergularia daemia (PDL) is applied to cure headache, migraine, boils, wounds and scabies. Objective: Due to the pain relieving potential of PDL, the present study is aimed to evaluate the different phases of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive efficacy of PDL in rat and mice models at very first time. Material and Methods: The important and major phytoconstituents of methanolic latex extract was quantified by using GC-MS and HPLC-DAD techniques. Orally, pre-treated three different doses (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) of PDL in order to evaluate distinct phases of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects. Results: The inhibition ratio of the PDL (200 mg/kg) on carrageenan, dextran-induced paw oedema, xylene-induced ear oedema and cotton pellet granuloma in rats were 59.2%, 51.0%, 53.1% and 42.5%, better than the inhibition ratio of indomethacin (5 mg/kg) were 49.5%, 50%, 44.4% and 37.6% . At 200 mg/kg, the PDL reduces writhing to 52.3% in acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction model, paw licking to 45.65% in formalin test and increases the response latency to 25.24% in hot plate test. In particular, Naloxone reversed the antinociceptive potential of PDL and Morphine in both phases of formalin and hot plate tests which suggests PDL activates opioid receptor and blocks the release of glutamate and substance P. Conclusion: PDL sustains exemplary anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity along with peripheral and central analgesic properties which mediated through the activation of opioid receptor.
Keywords: Pergularia daemia; Apocynaceae; anti-inflammatory; antinociceptive; Opioid system