Review Articles

2018  |  Vol: 4(5)  |  Issue: 5 (September- October)  |  https://doi.org/10.31024/ajpp.2018.4.5.2
Hedgehog Signaling: An emerging targeting therapy in Cancer

Hitarth Patel1, Jigna Joshi2, Urja Desai2, Apexa Raval3, Franky Shah4*

1Junior Research Fellow, Stem Cell Biology Lab, Department of Cancer Biology, The Gujarat Cancer & Research Institute, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

2Junior Research Assistant, Stem Cell Biology Lab, Department of Cancer Biology, The Gujarat Cancer & Research Institute, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

3Research Assistant, Stem Cell Biology Lab, Department of Cancer Biology, The Gujarat Cancer & Research Institute, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

4Senior Scientific Officer – Stem Cell Biology Lab, Department of Cancer Biology, The Gujarat Cancer & Research Institute, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

*Address for Corresponding Author

Dr. Franky D. Shah,

Senior Scientific Officer & In-charge

Stem Cell Biology Lab

Cancer Biology Department

The Gujarat Cancer & Research Institute, Asarwa, Ahmedabad, India - 380016

Abstract

Stem cell biology has come of an age. During the past few years, CSCs have been increasingly found in many malignancies. Tumor relapse and metastasis remains major hurdle for improving overall cancer survival. CSCs basically have slow growth rates and are resistant to chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Thus, new treatment strategies targeting CSCs can be developed. Various stem cell maintenance pathways such as Notch, Wnt and Hedgehog are found to be activated in the various cancers stem cells. Hedgehog signaling is most active during the embryonic development and aberrant reactivation of the pathway in adult tissue can lead to development of cancer. A variety of cancers such as brain, gastrointestinal, lung, breast and prostate cancer shows possible signs of activation of Hedgehog pathway. Targeted inhibition of Hedgehog signaling can be found effective in the treatment and prevention of many types of human cancers. Hence, the discovery and synthesis of specific Hedgehog pathway inhibitors may have significant clinical implications in novel cancer therapeutics. In this review, we have discussed Hedgehog signaling and its activation in different types of cancers and the development of its targeted therapies.

Keywords: Hedgehog signaling, signal transduction, cancer


Abbreviations

ATO    : Arsenic Trioxide

BCC    : Basal Cell Carcinoma

CSCs   : Cancer Stem Cells

DHh    : Desert Hedgehog

FDA    : Food and Drug Administration

Hh       : Hedgehog

IHh      : Indian Hedgehog

PTCH1   : Patched 1 protein

SHh     : Sonic Hedgehog

SMO1 : Smoothened1 protein

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