Review Articles

2020  |  Vol: 6(3)  |  Issue: 3 (May- June)  |  https://doi.org/10.31024/ajpp.2020.6.3.2
Bauhinia acuminata: A brief review of its phytochemistry and pharmacology

Divya Sebastian*, Renilda Sophy

Department of Advanced Zoology and Biotechnology,

Loyola College, Chennai, T.N. India

*Address for Corresponding Author

Divya Sebastian

Department of Advanced Zoology and Biotechnology,

Loyola College, Chennai, T.N. India

 

Abstract

Bauhinia acuminata L. selected for this study belongs to the family Fabaceae. It is an important medicinal plant of the Indian subcontinentBut still require exploring its pharmacological activities. It is research oriented plant and may provide new aspect to treat the various disorders. B. acuminata has been found to possess some pharmacological activities such as the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, anthelmintic, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, cytotoxic, hemolytic activity, ameliorative effect in chronic arsenicosis / stem bark. The  demand  is  due  to  the  increased acceptance of Ayurveda and traditional herbal medicines,  because  of  having  their  safe therapeutic effect and no side effects, as such modern peoples relies more on drug resources of plant origin. Therefore, based on the above-mentioned deliberation, this article reviews the most updated information of the phytochemical properties and pharmacological effects of B. acuminata

Keywords: Bauhinia acuminata, phytochemistry, antimicrobial, antioxidant


Introduction  

Plant extracts are known as chemical libraries of structurally diverse compounds. Many researchers have extremely focused on diverse procedures to evaluate active chemical compounds from plant resources. Many of the current drugs either mimic naturally occurring molecules or their structures that are fully or in part derived from natural motifs (Joseph and Raj, 2010). Population rise, inadequate supply of drugs, prohibitive cost of treatments, side effects of several synthetic drugs and development of resistance to currently used drugs for infectious diseases have led to increased emphasis on the use of plant materials as a source of Medicine (Pathare and Wagh, 2012).                   

Bauhinia is a large and diverse tropical and subtropical genus comprising approximately 300 species, belonging to the family Leguminosae (The Plant List). It consists of shrubs or trees, very rarely climbers, distributed throughout the tropical regions of the world. The genus Bauhinia includes 773 scientific plants; of these 352 are accepted species names according to the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) (Wunderlin and Eilers, 2006).About 15 species of this genus occur in India (Kirtikar and Basu, 1999). Plants in genus Bauhinia have characteristic butterfly shaped leaves. Most Bauhinia spp. have applications in traditional medicines. Bauhinia is further divided into four subgenera: Piliostigma, Kurz, Barklya and Phanera. This  is perfect little tree for places where  you don’t want anything wild to take over.it will grow no more  than two or three meters, and won’t  take up much space or get in anyone  way .it really is  quite in offensive .The white beautiful flowers  look like snowflakes  hanging on the branches with a sweet clean fragrance. Bauhinia flower appears on the Hong Kong flag and Hong Kong Airlines uses 'Bauhinia' as its radio call sign in air traffic communication.

Bauhinia acuminata (Fabaceae), an evergreen large shrub, grows in disturbed areas of Southeast Asia such as Indonesia, Malaysia or the Philippines. Bauhinia acuminata, belonging to the family of Fabaceae. The term Bauhinia is from the new Latin word Bauhin”. The equivalent word of Bauhinia is dwarf white orchid tree. Bark, leaves, stem, blooms, and roots have been utilized in conventional drugs. The plant is well known for its preventive action in tuberculosis .This review summarizes the profile of the plant in terms of its activities and phytochemical constituents.

Indian Species of bauhinia

B. acuminate, B blakeana, B. galpinii, B. grandidieri, B. monandra,  B. phoenicea, B. purpurea, B. racemosa, B. rufescens,  B. tomentosa, B. variegate,

Plant profile

Classification:

Kingdom:       Plantae-plants

Subkingdom: Tracheobionta -Vascular plants

Super Division: Spermatophyta – Seed plants

Division:   Magnoliophyta-flowering plants

Class:       Magnoliopsida-dicotyledons

Subclass: Rosidea

Order: Fabales

Family: Fabaceae –pea family  

Genus: Bauhinia L

Species: Bauhinia acuminata-

Figure 1. Whole plant of Bauhinia acuminate L.

 

Habitat

The plant is chiefly distributed in the mountains of southern and western India and has long been cultivated both as an ornamental and medicinal plant. Full sun to partial shade, average water needs, soil pH 5.6-6.5 (mildly acidic to acidic).

Propagation

Bauhinia acuminata are chiefly propagated from seeds; vegetative propagation except inarching has not shown much success .Seed is spread short distances when capsules rupture by water. They thrive in alkaline soils and keep on to not tolerate salty conditions. Full sun exposure is preferred but they can survive grown under partial sun (Teixeira da Silva., 2013).

Botanical description

Morphology: It is medium sized deciduous, fast-growing, sun-loving, flowering tree with a short, dark trunk and hairy branches (thin and ascending). It is usually growing on a rocky soil on hill slopes to sandy loam and loamy soil in the valley, basically, an acidic soil as it doesn’t tolerate salty conditions .B. acuminata grows two to three meters tall in a mildly acidic soil (pH 5.6-6.5).

Stems: stems are strong, smooth, upright with many slender branches; young twigs are pubescent

Bark: Bark of the plant is grayish brown, rough externally (due to the presence of fissures transverse cracks, exfoliations) and smooth surface, creamish color internally

Leaves: Leaves  are alternate, linear-lanceolate, running parallel venation, green color, entire margin, smooth and glabrous surface, broad, rounded and bilobed apex., shaped like an ox hoof with an apical cleft  up to 15 cm long, as broad as or broader than long, 9-15 nerved, cleft 1 green color which changes to brown on drying  petioles 1.5-4 cm long; blades ovate, broadly ovate or suborbicular, 5.4-11.3 (20) x 3.7-11.3 cm, divided about 1/3 their length, membranous, glabrous adaxially, densely puberulent abaxially, base cordate to rounded, apex of lobes acute. Leaves and leaflets often show sleep movements.

Flowers are bisexual, fragrant, showy, magenta and rosy purple-colored with five petals (4-6 cm long) with pedicel 6-12 mm long; hypanthium 5-9 mm long; calyx limb spathaceous, 28-37 mm long, with few scattered hairs abaxially, apex of 5 spidery lobes 1.7-4.1 mm long; petals not clawed, elliptic to oblanceolate, 39-49 (60) x 20-25 (30) mm, glabrous, white; fertile stamens 10, filaments strigose at base; ovary stipitate, strigose on sutures, stigma peltate, bilobed. The white flowers look like snowflakes hanging on the branches. Sometimes it is called Snowy Orchid Tree. 

Legumes :Legumes are  elongated  linear, 7.5-15 x 1.7-1.8 cm, pod-like shape, 6-12 inches, dry/hard covering and glabrous, brown; seeds suborbicular, ca. 10 mm in diameter" (Howard, 1988).

Inflorescences axillary racemes, 2.5-5.8 cm long; peduncles negligible; bracts and bracteoles lance-linear, 3-9 mm long, puberulent, especially on margins, caduceus.

Quantitative Microscopy of Leaf: Microscopical studies of a lamina showed  that Laminar T.S. revealed polygonal epidermal cells palisade cells in the mesophyll unicellular trichomes. The transverse section of leaves of selected Bauhinia species showed various distinct features. The lower cortex region of B. acuminata L. is wide (6-7 layered). B. acuminata have large number of simple trichomes and the  size is long in B. acuminata L. in  quantitative microscopy  B. acuminata L. have paracytic stomata a. Vein islet number and palisade ratio was found to be highest in B. acuminata L. leaf (Gupta., 2018).

Quantitative microscopy of leaf

Stomatal index: 50.56-52.65              Vein islet no: 25-27.

Stomatal no.     : 100-110                    Palisade ratio: 6-7

Table 1. Ethno medical uses of Bauhinia acuminta

Region

Parts

Administration

Ailment

Javanese

Roots

Cold Extract

Cough.

India

Root

Hot Extraction

Urinary Problems

Malaysia

Roots

Boiled

Ulceration Of The Nose.

India

Bark

Decoction

Biliousness (Kirtikarand Basu, 1935)

India

Leaves 

Paste

Bladder stone, scrofula, leprosy, asthma, proctotosis and digestive diseases, skin disease ( Dongray et al., 2016)

Indonesia

Bark

Boiled

Common Cold

Thailand

Roots

Macerated

Cough

Thailand

Flowers

Paste

 Headache And Hypertension

India

Flowers

Paste

Ulcers And Leprosy

Japan

Roots

Cold extract

Cough

India

Leaves

Macerated

Biliousness, inflammatory

India

Leaves

paste

 throat troubles

India

leaves/root

 Tonic

Drugs for liver.

Chemical constituents present in Bauhinia acuminata

Bauhinia acuminata leaves contain chemical compounds such as, palmitic acid, three phallic acid esters, gallic acid and ursolic acid (Nag et al., 2013). The leaves and stems of B. acuminata showed the presence of carbohydrate, phenolic compounds, saponins, flavonoids, oils, and fats, alkaloids, anthocyanoside, steroids, anthraquinone, terpenoids, resins, amino acid, sugars and cardiac glycosides in phytochemical screening. GC-MS analysis of B. acuminata detected hexamethyl cyclotrisiloxane and 1-methyl 3-nonyl indane in leaf and stem extracts (Krishna et al., 2015). B. acuminata leaf oil identified 19 compounds through GC-MS analysis are β-Caryophyllene,α-Humulene,Isomethyl-α-ionone,α-Farnesene,β-Ionone, Caryophylleneoxide 1,6,10-Dodecatrien-3-ol,3-hexen-1-ol, Humulene epoxide Caryophyllene oxide, caryophyl, Humulene epoxide, Caryophylla-4(12),8(13)-dien-5α-ol, α-Muurolol,α-Cadinol and Isoaromadendrene (Vasudevan et al.,2013) Phytochemical screening of plant extracts showed the presence of saponin, alkaloid, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, and tannin and steroid compounds (Dongray et al., 2016).

Figure 2. Structures of chemical constituents of Bauhinia acuminata

 

 

 

Pharmacological activities of B. acuminata

Although Bauhinia acuminata has been widely used in various symptoms and diseases, only a few pharmacological studies have been reported

Antioxidant activity

Experiment carried out by Khan (2014) screened the crude methanol extract of leaves of B. acuminata and its Kupchan fractions for antioxidant,cytotoxic and membrane stabilizing activities. Among all partitionates, the aqueous soluble fraction of B. acuminata showed the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 7.22±0.200 μg/ml. At concentration of 1.0 mg/ml, different partitionates fractions of B. acuminata protected the haemolysis of RBC induced by hypotonic solution and heat as compared to the standard acetyl salicylic acid

Dourandishan et al. (2013)  evaluated the antioxidant effects and its mechanism of aqueous leaves extract of Bauhinia acuminata (BA) in rat. The extract was screened for its phytochemical contents and antioxidant activity in vitro. Moreover, the extract was studied in rats to evaluate its effects in vivo. Rats were orally administered with the extract at the dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for 28 days. The extract contained phenolic compounds 53.36 ± 1.01 mg of gallic acid equivalents per gram BA extract. The free radical scavenging activity assessed by DPPH assay gave IC50 of 44.47 ± 2.83 µg/mL, which is relatively lower than that of BHT with IC50 of 12.34 ± 1.14µg/mL.

Antidiabetic activity

Antidiabetic activity of B. acuminata was evaluated in normal and Streptozotocin induced diabetic mice. It showed remarkable lowering of blood glucose levels (90.19%) by leaf and bark extract compared to positive control of 76.86%. The methanolic leaf and bark extracts exhibited significant property (P<0.05) compared to diabetic control group (Ray et al., 2017).

Antibacterial activity

Plants belonging to the genus Bauhinia are also frequently used in folk medicine to treat infectious diseases, and several experimental studies have confirmed their antimicrobial potential, especially against pathogenic fungi and bacteria .B. acuminata crude extract showed interesting antibacterial activities which could inhibit all tested gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Crude extract of B. acuminata L. seeds showed strong antibacterial activity against various pathogenic bacteria both gram positive and gram negative with the MICs ranging from 8.34 to 66.72μg/mL. The extract of B. acuminata L. seeds was well active on gram negative bacteria (Phansri et al., 2011).

Hemolytic Activity

B. acuminata L. crude extract in which peptides were tested for hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. It was found that B. acuminata crude extract showed hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Krishna et al. (2015) evaluated that the aqueous extracts of leaves of B. acuminata towards human erythrocytes they showed very low haemolytic activity was recommended as safe for RBC count.

Anti-Nociceptive Activity

Padgaonkar, et al. (2018) evaluated Bauhinia acuminata for anti-nociceptive activity,  in Swiss albino mice by hot plate, acetic acid induced writhing and tail immersion tests at three different dose levels (250, 500 and 1000mg/kg) of aqueous and alcoholic extracts. Formalin induced nociception test was performed in Sprague Dawley rats at three dose levels. Both aqueous and alcoholic extracts were found safe at dose of 5000mg/kg. In hot plate test, both extracts showed significant (p<0.001) anti-nociceptive activity. In acetic acid writhing test, both aqueous and alcoholic extracts significantly reduced number of writhes (p<0.001). In Tail immersion test, both the extracts showed significant increase in tail withdrawal response (p<0.001). Treatment with aqueous and alcoholic extracts significantly reduced nociception in formalin induced nociception model (p<0.001).

Brain shrimp lethality test

Islam et al. (2014) investigated the cytotoxic and thrombolytic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of B. acuminata with the Brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The methanolic extract of B. acuminata was assessed with human blood to evaluate thrombolytic effect. The extract showed remarkable cytotoxic activity, LC50 value of the extract was 15.41μg/ml compared to vincristin sulphate. It also evaluated for thrombolytic agent compared to streptokinase. It has the significant thrombolytic effect which was about 10.058%. These findings demonstrate that the leaves extract of B. acuminata have significance cytotoxic and thrombolytic activities.

Membrane stabilizing activity

Md. Reyad-Ul-Ferdous et al. (2014) investigated that the thrombolytic activity of the extractives of leaves of B. acuminata were highly effective in the membrane stabilizing activity as the extractives prevented the lysis of erythrocyte induced by hypotonic solution and heat. In hypotonic solution induced condition the highest membrane stabilizing activity was exhibited by the Pet ether soluble fraction (PESF-418.26%) followed by carbon tetra chloride soluble fraction (CTCSF-418.26%). Significant amount of membrane stabilizing activity were also present in methanol soluble fraction (MESF-13.46%) and aqueous soluble fraction (AQSF-167.30%).

Antihelmintic activity

Prabhu et al. (2018) evaluated Bauhinia acuminata to its anthelmintic quality against the Musca domestica. In vitro anthelmintic assay revealed both extracts have shown significant effect in paralysis and death of the housefly worms in a dose dependent manner. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts with different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/ml) were tested on the Musca domestica worms in vitro assay. Albendazole was used as standard and distilled water as a control. The leaves of Bauhinia acuminata could be used as an anthelmintic remedy, to carry out in vivo using laboratory animals to confirm the safety, efficacy, and toxicity profile of this plant.

Antidiarrheal study

Islam et al. (2014) investigated that the castor oil-induced diarrheal experiment in mice, the methanol extract of leaves of Bauhinia acuminata at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, reduced the total number of faeces as well as the total number of diarrheal faeces in a dose dependent manner. But also Magnesium sulphate induced diarrheal model in mice, the methanolic extract of leaves of Bauhinia acuminata above dose levels significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the extent of diarrhea in test animals. Both the doses were shown to reduce the total number of faeces and wet faeces when compared to the control group.

Hepatoprotective Activity

Porandla Ravali et al. (2015) evaluated that the hepatoprotective activity of Bauhinia acuminata.L against Carbon tetra chloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Hepatic damage was induced by administration of CCL4 in combination with olive oil. Bauhinia acuminata.L showed the hepatoprotective activity by lowering CCL4 induced elevation of SGOT, SGPT, ALP  & Bilirubin levels (p<0.01) and was confirmed by the histopathological examination of liver tissues treated with test compound. This result strongly supports the protective effect of EEBA against liver injury.

Dourandishan  et al. (2015) provides evidence that Bauhinia acuminata was well tolerated by the animals throughout the 28 days of study as shown by normal serum levels AST, ALP, ALT, BUN and Cr as well as normal histology of liver and pancreatic and kidney tissue. Significantly, reduction of serum oxidative stress markers malondialdehyde (MDA) was found in rat treated with BA extract compared with control.(Sebastian and Albin,2018) evaluated EA fraction of chloroform extract of Bauhinia acuminata showed a subsequent recovery towards normal level in the activities of the serum biochemical parameters after the induction of lung carcinogen benzopyrene strongly suggests the possibility of as a conditioner of the hepatocytes.

Anticancer Study

 Sebastian (2018) evaluated in vivo anti-cancer activity of Bauhinia acuminta was assessed in a lung cancer model of C57BL/6 mice using benzopyrene as the cancer causing agent. Disease induced animals were treated with EA fraction from crude chloroform extract of B. acuminata at four doses i.e. very low, low, mid and high dose of 20, 100, 250 and 500 mg/Kg b.wt. respectively. The high dose of 500 mg/Kg b. w t. showed decrease in tumor size and volume in a dose dependent manner. The changes observed in the animals treated at the high dose of EA fraction from crude chloroform extract of B. acuminata was comparable to that of the standard drug (5-FU) used in the study.

Membrane stabilizing activity

Reyad-Ul-Ferdous (2014) explained that the B. acuminata leaf extract showed a valid membrane stabilizing activity, it also prevented the lysis of erythrocyte triggered by hypotonic solution and heat. These findings put forward the significant role of B. acuminata anti-inflammatory activity which may be due to the high content of flavonoids and tannins.

Nano synthesis of bauhinia acuminata

Alharbi et al. (2018) synthesized AgNPs  using the Bauhinia acuminata leaf extract  have promising potential in antimicrobial food packaging, as well as  foliar spray to control plant pathogens in the field, and to synergize the efficacy of fungicidal and larvicidal formulations.. AgNPs tested at 60 μg/mL inhibited the growth of 5 bacteria and 3 fungal pathogens. In the insecticidal assays on important mosquito species, LC50 of the aqueous extract of B. acuminata leaves on the larvae of Anopheles stephensiAedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus were 204.07, 226.02, and 249.24 μg/mL, respectively. The B. acuminata-synthesized AgNPs exhibited higher larvicidal efficacy.

Sebastian and Albin (2017) evaluated the antimicrobial activity of   BAAgNPs have multiple targets and found to be effective against C. freundi and M.  luteus was found to be <1000 and 750 μg using MIC assay.

Conclusion  

Bauhinia acuminata is one of the traditional plant used for the treatment of a large range  of diseases .There is a  still a lack of clinical data  for its  efficacy, and clinical trials  are  warranted to justify  its traditional use .it also possesses  many hidden medicinal properties  which can be further evaluated in the future.

References

Alharbi NS, Govindarajan M, Kadaikunnan S, Khaled JM, Almanaa TN, Alyahya SA, Sudha A. 2018. Nanosilver crystals capped with Bauhinia acuminata Phytochemicals as new antimicrobials and mosquito larvicides. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 50:146-153.

Anju krishna SR, Hafza S, Poorna chandrika G, Lekhapriya C, Bhaskara Rao KV. 2015. Pharmacological properties, phytochemical and GC-MS analysis of Bauhinia acuminate Linn. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 7(4):372–380.

Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants: Bauhinia acuminata (http://www.toxicologycentre.com/English/plants/Botanical /vellamandram.html

Dongray R, Chanchal D, Chaudhary S. 2016. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties of Bauhinia Acuminata. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 05(01):531–546.

Dourandishan M, Dastory L, Sharafy R, Khazaee M. 2013. Investigation the amount of fiber and phenolic compounds in Sclerorhachis leptoclada from South Khorassan. In 2nd National Congress on Medicinal Plants.

Floracafe(http://floracafe.com/sereach_PhotoDetails.aspex?Photo=Top&ID=3065&show=medicinal)

Gupta A, Dwivedi J, Irshad S, Verma S, Dwivedi H. 2018. Comparative pharmacognostical evaluation and HPTLC analysis of three different species of bauhinia leaves. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, 9:347-349.

Howards BH, Marks TR. 1987. The in vitro – in vivo interface, in Jackson MB, Mantell SH, Blake J. (eds.) Advances in the Chemical Manipulation of Plant Tissue Culture. Monograph 16, British Plant Growth Regulator Group, Bristol.

http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/ild-794?ref=tpl1. . Bauhinia acuminata L. / The Plant List

Islam M, Fahad M, Hossain M, Mamun M, Ferdous M. 2014. In vitro Cytotoxic and thrombolytic activity of methanolic extract of Bauhinia acuminata Leaves. UK Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biosciences, 2(2):4–6.

Islam MN, Fahad AB. 2014. In-vivo Antidiarrheal and In-vitro Antimicrobial Activitiesof the Leaf Extracts of Bauhinia acuminata. American Journal of Research Communication, 2(7):158–168.

Islam N, Ferdous R, Fahad AB, Hossain MR, Mukti M. 2014. In Vivo antidiarrheal and In vitro antimicrobial activities of the leaf extracts of Bauhinia acuminata. American Journal of Research Communication, 2(7):158-68.

Joseph B, Raj SJ. 2010. Pharmacognstic and phytochemical properties of Aloe vera linn an overview Taxonomy: Enzymes : International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, 4: 106–110.

Khan MF, Shilpi RI, Rashid R, Rashid MA. 2014. In vitro antioxidant, cytotoxic and membrane stabilizing activities of Bauhinia acuminata L.  Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal, 17(1): 99–101.

Kirtikar KR, Basu BP. 1993. Indian Medicinal Plants.International Book Publisher, Dehradun.

Nag Sadipa, Anirban Paul, Ritu Parna Datta. 2013. Phytochemical analysis of some medicinal plants. International Journals of Scientific and Research Publications 3(4): 1648-1651.

Padgaonkar AV, Suryavanshi SV, Londhe VY, Kulkarni YA. 2018. Acute toxicity study and anti-nociceptive activity of Bauhinia acuminata Linn leaf extracts in experimental animalmodels. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 2(7):158–168.

Pathare YS, Wagh VD. 2012. Herbal medicines and nutritional supplements used in the treatment of glaucoma: A review. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences. 3: 331-334.

Phansri K, Sarnthima R, Thammasirirak S, Boonchalee P, Khammuang S. 2011. Antibacterial activity of Bauhinia acuminata L. seed protein extract with low hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. Chiang Mai Journal of Science 38(2):242–251.

Prabhu R, Razali N, Dhandapani N, Nagaraj P, Muthaiyan P, Joseph, JR. 2018. In Vitro Anthelmintic Study of Bauhinia Acuminata Linn. Leaf Extracts Against the. Indo Amercian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 05(06):5082–5089.

Ravali P, Challa PK, Soundarya V. 2015. Hepatoprotective  activity of ethanolic Bauhinia acuminata. L Extract Against CCI4-Induced liver damage in rat. Pharma Research library, 8: 8-12.

Reyad-Ul-Ferdous M, Liza F,Towshin Alam T, Tasnim F, Mukti M, Khan M E, Haque, T, 2014. Evaluation of potential antioxidant activity of leaves of Bauhinia acuminata. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences .10: 55- 60.

Sebastian D, Fleming AT. 2017. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueousextract of Bauhinia acuminata using various physical parameters and its applications. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 6(4):1889-1900.

Sebastian D. 2018 . Pharmacognostic standardization and bioassay-guided fractionation of Bauhinia acuminata in relation to anti-lung cancer activity. University Madras.

Silja VP, Varma, KS, Mohanan KV. 2008. Ethno medicinal plant knowledge of the Mullukuruma tribe of Wayanad district, Kerala. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 7:604–607.

Teixeira da Silva, JA. 2013. A Review of the in Vitro Propagation of Bauhinia Spp. Journal of Horticultural Research, 21:39–45.

The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition: Fiftieth Anniversary Printing". Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved September 19, 2019.

Vasudevan V, Mathew J, Baby S. 2013 Chemical Composition of Essential Oil of Bauhinia acuminata Leaves. Asian Journal of Chemistry 25: 2329-2330.

Wunderlin RP. Eilers RM. 2009. Revision of Bauhinia subgenus Phanera section Schnella (Cercideae: Caesalpinioideae: Fabaceae). Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 3: 619628.

Manuscript Management System
Submit Article Subscribe Most Popular Articles Join as Reviewer Email Alerts Open Access
Our Another Journal
Another Journal
Call for Paper in Special Issue on

Call for Paper in Special Issue on