Research Articles

2021  |  Vol: 7(1)  |  Issue: 1(January-February)  |  https://doi.org/10.31024/ajpp.2021.7.1.8
Pharmaceutical standardization of Swarna Makshika Bhasma (Processed Copper Pyrite): A traditional medicine of Indian subcontinent

Vandana Meena*, Shakti Bhushan, Anand Chaudhary

Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Faculty of Ayurveda, Institute of Medical Sciences,Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (U.P.), 221005, India

*Address for Corresponding author

Vandana Meena

Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Faculty of Ayurveda, Institute of Medical Sciences,Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (U.P.), 221005, India

 

Abstract

Objective: The pharmaceutical practice in Ayurveda is Rasa Shastra. The consistency of the medicines recommended for the patient is also a prerequisite for effective management. The Ayurvedic metallic preparations (Bhasma) made from metals and minerals are potent and efficient. The aim of this study was to standardize the pharmaceutical process of Swarna Makshika Bhasma (copper pyrites). Material and methods: In this study, pharmaceutical processing of Swarna makshika Bhasma (processed copper pyrites) was standardized as per Rasa Tarangini (classical text book of ayurvedic pharmaceutics). It was subjected to Bharjana (frying and roasting) containing lemon juice for 12 h at temperature range between 650°C-800°C. Further, triturated with lemon juice for impregnation of herbal constituents and subjected to the regulated quantum of energy in form of heat (Marana) and then in an earthen container and temperature was maintained at 600°C for 30 minutes in first step. Then continuously for next 10 similar steps 700°C temperature was maintained for 30 minutes unless all the consistency of metallic ash (Bhasma) with its classical and contemporary parameters was guaranteed. Results: The weight loss at full speed was on aggregate 14%. The finished product was Fe2O3 in maximum amount, copper sulphide (Cu2S), CuFeS2, FeSO4 and Fe3O4. Conclusion: This study perceives the sights of scientific substantiation of ancient Ayurvedic pharmaceutical procedures in requisites of purification, impregnation of herbal constituents and thermodynamic principle.

Keywords: Makshika, Bhasma, Ayurveda, Chalcopyrite, Copper pyrite


Introduction

In the shape of elements, minerals and plants, nature has incredibly useful Medicines. The bulk of medications are not integrated into the biological system until certain improvements are made. Certain advanced procedures are introduced in order to make these medicines therapeutically acceptable and viable. Ayurveda drug processing processes include the Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana disciplines. The essential drug production processes include heating, boiling, quenching, dipping, grinding, distilling, cleaning, filtering etc. The aforementioned protocols are followed during classical operations of Shodhana, Jarana, Marana, Bhavana. These techniques play an important and crucial part in the manufacturing of pharmaceutical products. It is said that Shodhana(purifactory) process eliminates soluble impurities from the raw material, adds organic materials and significantly decreases toxicity (Rajput et al., 2013).

Swarna Makshika Bhasma (SMB) used as an Aphrodisiac, immunomodulation activity, targeted medication, vocal well-being, anemia and diabetes (Sadanand Sharma, 2012). This study was generated to provide basis for standard operative procedures for preparation of swarna makshika bhasma.

Material and methods

Gola Deenanath, Local ayurvedic market of Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, was recommended by experts for finest quality of Swarna Makshika & Gandhaka collection. Mercury was obtained from M/s Merck Specialties Pvt. Ltd. The department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Faculty of Ayurveda, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University had authenticated a sample of Raw Swarna Makshika, Parada & Gandhaka.

Preparation of Swarna Makshika Bhasma

The process of Swarna makshika bhasma involves two important process namely Shodhana of Swarna Makshika and Marana of Swarna Makshika. In this pharmaceutical study we have formulated incinerated therapeutic ash of Swarna Makshika known as Swarna Makshika Bhasma, to assess the effects of these drugs on Experimental Diabetic Charles foster albino rats.

Refinement and preliminary pharmaceutical procedure of Swarna Makshika (Shodhana of Swarna Makshika)

The procedure for the process of swarna makshika shodhana was followed as per Rasa Tarangini. Shodhana of Swarna Makshika was performed by preparation of the liquid media to perform Bharjana (Frying & Roasting) of Swarna Makshika and then Shodhita Swarna Makshika was washed and subjected for further process. For Shodhana process fresh lemons were collected from the Market of Sundarpur, Varanasi. The theory of Nimbu swarasa (lemon juice) extraction is as alluded to in the Sharangdhar Samhita, involving Nishpidana (expression) (Sharma, 2012). Lemon was washed properly under tap water. Outer covering, apex and cuticle part were discarded properly by knife. The internal pulp section was put between the two pressing wings and proper manual pressure was applied for maximum extraction. The extracted liquid material was collected in stainless steel vessels. Then the collected liquid material was sieved through cotton cloth and was measured. This measured liquid was used for further processing. Twenty kg of lemon yielded about 6.5 litres of juice used for Bharjana (frying and roasting).

By shredding it into a pestle mortar, Swarna Makshika (calcopyrite)was reduced to fine powder. The fine powdered Swarna Makshika was put in an iron pan over a heating system and extracted lemon juice and cooked on extreme heat (650°C to 800°C). Lemon juice was applied to the drying process intermittently. The stuff was constantly stirred. This process continues until the substance is turned in red bricks colour. It took 3 days to do this (everyday 4-hour heating). In the centre of the cup, the substance was concentrated and heat intensified by four hours, using earthen saucer. After that material was left for self-cooling. On completion of 12 hours, next day it was cleaned with warm water and the bottom product was gathered and dried well. The Shodhita Swarna Makshika has been weighed and exposed to further substantial use after drying. The whole process of Shodhana has been depicted in figure 1 was following the aforementioned process, remaining two batches were prepared.

Figure 1. Pharmaceutical processing of Swarna Makshika (Shodhana Process)

Marana (incineration) of Shodhita Swarna Makshika

Marana was done as the procedure mentioned in Rasa Tarangini. Fluid medium was formulated to execute Bhavana Samskara (levigation) of Shodhita (purified) Swarna Makshika was initiated. For incorporating the procedure of Bhavana fresh lemon were collected and same procedure was applied as mentioned above in Shodhan process. Initial weight of lemon was two kg and extracted juice obtained was 600ml. Shodhita Swarna Makshika was placed in a mortar & pestle and shredded well with lemon juice till it was smoothed. When the subhavita lakshan (desired properties) emerges, Chakrikas (circular disc shaped pellets) was prepared to form this small amount of levigated doughy mass. Diameter, thickness, weight of Chakrika (pellet) were 2.0 -2.5 cm, 0.5­ - 0.7 cm, 5 -7 gm respectively. Later on, they were dried. Dried pellets in a Sharava (earthen saucer) was coated with another Sharava (earthen saucer), were measured and arranged. Clay smeared cloth was used for sealing and dried. Total seven-layer coating was followed after drying the preceding coating. The arranged smeared Samputa (Closed earthen saucer with another one) was subjected to heat in Electric Muffle Furnace (EMF) at temperature 600°C maintained for 30 min duration. The Samputa was taken out of the oven after self-cooling, cleansed and opened. Same process was repeated eleven times to obtain desirable Swarna Makshika Bhasma. Bhasma passed every desired completion test mentioned in the classics for the Swarna Makshika Bhasma consistency test after Eleven Putas. i.e., Varitar (final product should float on water), Rekhapurnata (bhasma should enter into the ridges of fingers), Amla pariksha (Curd test) etc. Total eleven putas were given in this process required to obtain Swarna Makshika Bhasma with all desired characteristics mentioned in classics. Prepared Bhasma was subjected to Trituration (mardana) for one hour in mortar and pestle. Then it was filtered with a cotton cloth, weighed and collected in an air tight container for further procedure (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Pharmaceutical processing of Makshika Bhasma (Marana Process)

Results and discussion

Initial amount of Swarna Makshika taken for Shodhana was 1 kg and 2800 ml of lemon juice was utilized for the Bharjana (frying and roasting) for twelve hours duration. The summary of Shodhana of Swarna Makshika has been mention in table 1, Loss in weight after Shodhana was 12.5% and it was due to removal of impurities in form of dust/vapour/fumes.

Table 1. Summary of Shodhana of Swarna Makshika

Name of media

Quantity of media

Duration of Bharjana

Wt. of Swarna Makshika before Shodhana (g)

Wt. of Swarna Makshika after Shodhana (g)

% loss

Lemon juice

2800 ml

12 hours

1 kg

875

12.5

Before Shodhana process Raw Swarna Makshika was powdered and evolution of fumes was observed in initial two hour during Bharjana (Roasting and frying) process and then fumes subsided. Makshika turned into fine powder and brown in colour with shining particle. Sulphur odour was observed when Swarna Makshika was heated. On heating up to five-hour colour changed to brick red. The temperature of system observed through pyrometer was 800°C and the temperature of upper surface of pan was around 650°C. Loss was observed due to evaporation of Sulphur. Lemon juice was added as per the requirement during the intermediate procedure. The whole process was on mild heat and stirring was done constantly while roasting.

In roasting and frying phase there is some kind of electrostatic attraction or surface creation of citrate complexes with copper pyrites. The positive charge of metallic ion is decreased by citric acid, thereby suggesting the adsorption on positively charged sites (Di Palma and Mecozzi, 2007). Unpurified swarna makshika may contain physical impurities, such as undesirable rock or gangue minerals, standard silicates, or oxides (Baba et al., 2012).  Thermal expansion principle indicates that expansion ranges from metal and mineral to heating materials. The expansion of the compound is generally smaller than that of metal. Consequently, continuous heating leads to the splitting into rough to fine powder. By reacting with ambient oxygen, copper and iron are converted to oxide form at a red-hot condition (Faris et al., 2017).  For marana process 875 g of shodhita swarna makshika was taken, the temperature had been fixed at 600°C and sustained for 30 minutes. On completion of first puta (regulated quantum of heat in a system), Chakrikas were dark brown in color and pellet became harder. Later on, it became light brown and softer after 2ndputa. Pellets prepared more compact, lighter in colour and smoother after 3rdputa. Pellets were hard in consistency initially gradually became soft. Till sixth puta decrease in weight of Swrana Makshika was noted but after 6thPuta and 7thPuta increasing in weight was observed. On completion of 11thPuta weight remains same.

During the process of bhavana with lemon juice which contains citric acid, it has been stated in some studies that some sort of magnetic coupling is happening among them forming copper and iron complexes with some specific magnetic behavior (anti ferromagnetic or ferromagnetic property), which might be conducive for cellular uptake for better therapeutic activity (Mastropaolo et al., 1976).

The mechanism induces biochemical alteration and the biological media function as selective donor ligand. Changes can be represented in terms of reduction of particle size, conjugation of trace elements, the creation of beneficial compounds, and therapeutic receptor activation of therapeutic components. Puta is a system which is closed in which a heat quantum is generated to induce oxidative addition, reduction and insertion between ingredients present on the system at a given temperature and pressure, volume etc. In chemical thermodynamics, thermodynamic entropy is fundamental to the Clausius equation and the Gibbs free energy equation for reactants and products to be quantified. The second thermodynamic rule notes that entropy in an isolated system increases in all random processes (Today, 2001). Heat can be perceived in accordance with Fourier's law in chakrikas (pellets). Under these laws, a uniform material flow rate is proportional to the surface and the temperature decreases and is reciprocal to the length of the flow line. Thus, instead of circular mass the pellets should be smooth and the diameter of the pellets should be shorter than possible to allow the heat transfer (Law, 1996). Citric acid leaching can be successfully used in order to produce desired treatments from copper pyrites at higher temperatures and normal pressure (Meshram et al., 2020).

Table 2. Summary of Marana of Shodhita Swarna Makshika

Puta

Amount of Liquid Media

Triturating time

Set temperature (°C)

Reaching duration  on ST (Min)

Maintaining  time on ST (Min)

Initial wt. of Swarna Makshika

Final wt. of Swarna Makshika

% loss/Gain

1st

350 ml

6 hour

600

40

30

865

820

5.2

2nd

350 ml

6 hour

700

60

30

820

796

2.9

3rd

400 ml

6 hour

700

65

30

786

772

1.7

4th

450 ml

6 hour

700

55

30

772

768

0.5

5th

400 ml

6 hour

700

60

30

768

759

1.1

6th

400 ml

6 hour

700

54

30

759

760

0.13 G

7th

450 ml

6 hour

700

58

30

760

765

0.65G

8th

500 ml

6 hour

700

60

30

765

752

1.6

9th

450 ml

6 hour

700

45

30

752

746

0.7

10th

450 ml

6 hour

700

48

30

746

743

0.4

11th

450 ml

6 hour

700

45

30

743

743

-

 

Conclusion

The first step in standardizing every medicinal product is pharmaceutical standardization. In the advancement of Ayurvedic pharmaceutical technologies to ensure efficiency, effectiveness and safety, we propose the implementation of this entire central scientific theory involved in the manufacturing process. This study led to an improved interpretation of Swarna makshika Bhasma's medicinal preparation in accordance with the Ayurvedic Regimen. The pharmaceuticals in Ayurvedic preparation approaches should be used to consider current ideas and techniques.

Conflict of interest

None

References

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