K. Jeevika, R. A. Sobiya, T. Indhumathi*, S. Kathiravan
Department of Biochemistry, Dr.N.G.P. Arts and Science College (Autonomous),
Coimbatore - 641048, Tamil Nadu, India.
*Address of the Corresponding Author:
Dr. T. Indhumathi,
Professor, Department of Biochemistry,
Dr. N.G.P. Arts and Science College (Autonomous), Coimbatore - 641048,
Tamil Nadu, India
In December 2019, a cluster of cases of pneumonia of unknown origin was identified in Wuhan, China which was named as SARS-CoV-2 by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. The Covid-19 attacks the respiratory system of the infected people leading to its severe damage by eliciting a vigorous immune response by our body. The disease has spread worldwide and affects human health. Covid-19, a newly reported virus is 96% similar to bat CoV. Upon inhalation, the virus enters the respiratory region by unlocking ACE2 protein. Type 2 alveolar cell leading to collapse of alveolus which leads to fluid accumulation, it causes ARDS, SIRS, multi organ failure which cause fatal consequences. In this review, the scope of nanoscaffold in the Covid-19 infected lung tissue regeneration was discussed. Tissue engineering and nanotechnology can help in formation of tissue and guide cellular activities. Damaged tissue can be regenerated by nanoscaffolds that have potential to be risk-free, antiviral and also biological therapeutics. Scaffolds provide intra and extracellular cell contact in regenerative medicine and can provide mechanical strength, oxygen and nutrients for cell metabolism, cell adhesion, and progressive maturation and remove metabolic waste products. It also has some limitations like short circulation half-life of bioactive molecules, inadequate extrinsic factors, variable toxicity, poor regulation and degradation rate. These nanoscaffolds for lung tissue damage due to Covid-19 improve adsorption of ECM protein, new tissue formation, and enhance biological regulation of cell behavior for regeneration and help to recover from lung damage.
Keywords: SARS, Covid-19, lung tissue damage, tissue engineering, nanoscaffold