Review Articles

2024  |  Vol: 10(2)  |  Issue: 2 (March-April)  |  https://doi.org/10.31024/ajpp.2024.10.2.1
Surveying Progress: A review of immunotherapeutic strategies for cancer prevention and treatment

Ashu Ali Siddiquia#, Amar Arorab#, Neha Chauhanc, Nisar Ahmad Syedd, Abid Ali Sheikhe

aDAV College Muzaffarnagar Uttar Pradesh, India

bBanasthali Vidyapith, Banasthali -  304022, Rajasthan, India

cHemwati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University, Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India

dSher - i - Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar- 190011, J&K, India

eNational Institute of Biologicals, Sector 62, Noida -201309, UP, India

#Address for Corresponding authors

Ashu Ali Siddiqui 

DAV College Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India


Abstract

Immunotherapy has reshaped cancer treatment and revitalized the study of cancer immunology. Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are two types of immunotherapy that have generated durable clinical effects, although their efficacies vary, and only certain categories of cancer patients can benefit from them. Immune infiltrates in the tumor microenvironment (TME) have been proven to play an important role in tumor growth and alter clinical outcomes in cancer patients. Comprehensive characterization of tumor-infiltrating immune cells provides an insight into the processes of cancer immune evasion, perhaps widening the creation of novel therapeutic possibilities. However, the diverse and dynamic characteristics of the TME make the exact dissection of intratumoral immune cells difficult. In this review, we discuss how cancer immunotherapy relies on a variety of ways to boost tumor immunity and marks a paradigm shift in cancer treatment, since attention is now drawn to the "biologic passport" of the individual tumor rather than the site of origin of the tumor. Biological modifiers such as cytokines and vaccines, adoptive cell therapies, oncolytic viruses, and antibodies against immune checkpoint inhibitors such as the co-inhibitory T-cell receptor PD-1 and one of its ligands, programmed death-ligand 1, are among the cancer immunotherapies discussed here. We expect that this review will strengthen our understanding of the advancements in cancer immunotherapy, facilitate the elucidation of immune cell modulation in tumor progression, and direct the discovery and development of novel immunotherapies for cancer treatment.

Keywords: Immunotherapy; tumor microenvironment; immune cells; therapeutic approaches

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